THEORETICAL BASEMENTS OF FACTOR ANALYSIS BASED ON DETERMINISTIC MODELS OF COMPANY PROFITSChernyshova O.B.;Iankovyi V.O
Key words: deterministic multiplicative model;the method of chain substitutions;the method of identifying the isolated influence of factors
The study of influence of individual factors on change of profit (loss) of the company used various
models of relations, which by the nature of the cause-effect relationships that postulated between variables
can be divided into two classes: deterministic and probabilistic. However, small samples probabilistic dependence
between variables cannot be shown explicitly. This fact is the main reason for which these modelsalmost not used in financial and economic analysis, as the researcher usually has information only 2-3 periods:
during the reporting and the base (planned) year. Therefore, most used in financial and economic
analysis of company profits gained deterministic models, including statistics (index) and mathematical models.
The theoretical and methodological issues of application of deterministic models multiplicative type in
the decomposition of absolute and relative growth of company profits by factors discussed in this article.
Among statistical approaches to factor analysis of profit considered two main classes of multiplicative models:
based on the method of chain substitutions, and those through which detects the impact of isolated factors.
In addition, relatively new mathematical methods of financial and economic analysis of profit – differential,
integral, logarithmic – discussed in this article. A comparative analysis of their strengths and weaknesses,
as well as specific recommendations for implementation in practice of the financial and economic
analysis at the enterprise the most appropriate approach to identify the real impact of factors on output indicators
– profits – has been made.
In particular, it is recommended to waive a factor of financial and economic analysis of profit chain
substitutions method and related methods of absolute and relative differences as they all require priority
consideration of the factors in effective sign and attach major factor interaction effect (synergistic effect) to
the contribution of qualitative and structural factors. It threatens to distort the true essential role in shaping
the specified factors increase effective signs.
According to the authors, method for detecting an isolated impact factors and logarithmic relatively
new method should actively introduce the practice of financial and economic analysis. Although the problem
of choosing between study the effect of interaction form the main factors or distribution of its proportional
factors between the logarithms of indices still would remain open and require additional research
1. Hryhor N.M., Krekhivskyi O.V., Nikolaienko N.L. ta in. (2007). Metodychni rekomendatsii otsinky vplyvu
zmin ekonomichnykh faktoriv na rezultatyvni pokaznyky prybutku, rentabelnosti vyrobnytstva i realizatsii produktsii
(robit, posluh). K.: DP DIKTED, 140.
2. Yerina A.M., Motorin R.M., Holovach A.V. ta in. (2002). Statystyka: navch.-metod. posib. dlia samostiinoho
vyvch. dystsypliny K.: KNEU, 457.
3. Herasymenko S.S., Holovach A.V., Yerina A.M. ta in. (2000). Statystyka: pidruch. K.: KNEU, 467.
4. Yankovyi O.H. (2010). Alternatyvni modeli faktornoho indeksnoho analizu. Materialy 10-yi Vseukrainskii
naukovo-praktychnii konferentsii «Statystychna otsinka sotsialno-ekonomichnoho rozvytku». Khmelnytskyi,
Khmelnytskyi universytet upravlinnia ta prava, 15-19.
5. Yankovyi O.H. (2012). Determinovani modeli faktornoho ekonomichnoho analizu. Metodolohiia
statystychnoho zabezpechennia rozvytku rehionu: Monohrafiia Za zah. red. A.Z. Pidhornoho. Odesa: Atlant, 125-143.
6. Osypov V.Y. (1989). Metody faktornoho analyza y planyrovanyia v promyshlennosty : ucheb. posobye. K.:
UMK VO pry Mynvuze USSR, 212.
7. Metod y metodyka kompleksnoho ekonomycheskoho analyza khoziaistvennoi deiatelnosty [Elektronnyi
resurs]. Rezhym dostupa: http://sumdu.telesweet.net/doc/lections/Ekonomicheskiy-naliz/16037/index.html.